RNA editing in microRNAs has been recently proposed as a novel biomarker in cancer. Here, we investigated RNA editing by leveraging small-RNA sequencing data from 87 NSCLC (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer) samples paired with normal lung tissues from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) combined with 26 plasma-derived exosome samples from an independent cohort. Using both the editing levels and microRNA editing expression, we detected deregulated microRNA editing events between NSCLC tumor and normal tissues. Interestingly, and for the first time, we also detected editing sites in the microRNA cargo of circulating exosomes, providing the potential to non-invasively discriminate between normal and tumor samples. Of note, miR-411-5p edited in position 5 was significantly dysregulated in tissues as well as in exosomes of NSCLC patients, suggesting a potential targetome shift relevant to lung cancer biology.