The Impact of Physicochemical Characteristics on Therapeutic Efficacy of Anticancer Nanomaterials: A Review

ABSTRACT
Cancer is a leading cause of death throughout the world which suffers from treatment failures mainly due to
intensive toxicity and lack of effectiveness of conventional drugs. The application of nanotechnology in cancer
treatment promises to overcome the drawbacks of conventional drugs/dosage forms and improve their therapeutic
efficacy. Nanomaterials have novel properties that influence their in vivo performance. The biological behaviour of
nanotechnology-based medicines in the body, which is different from the in vivo performance of conventional drug
delivery systems, may provide benefits in pharmaceutical and/or clinical applications including, enhancements in
solubility, stability, therapeutic efficacy, minimized side effects, and treatment of diseases. This paper discusses the
unique characteristics and distinguished advantages of nanomaterials as anticancer drug carriers. Physicochemical
properties of nanomaterials are critical parameters to their clinical translation. Hence, the impact of the main
physicochemical properties on the efficacy of anticancer nanomaterials, which are found to effective for cancer
treatment and/or diagnosis, are presented. It is important to have reliable and robust characterization techniques
that could enable relate physicochemical properties of nanomaterials with their in vivo behaviour. Brief explanation
of the different techniques that can be used for studying the various physicochemical characteristics of
nanomaterials is given. An important consideration, to achieve fast and successful development of nanotechnologybased anticancer drug products, is assessment and optimization of physicochemical and biopharmaceutical
properties at the early stage. Obviously this requires collaboration among the different discovery and development
scientists.

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