Stem cell therapy represents a promising approach in the treatment of several neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The beneficial effect of stem cells is exerted by paracrine mediators, as exosomes, suggesting a possible potential use of these extracellular vesicles as non-cell based therapy. We demonstrated that exosomes isolated from adipose stem cells (ASC) display a neuroprotective role in an in vitro model of ALS. Moreover, the internalization of ASC-exosomes by the cells was shown and the molecules and the mechanisms by which exosomes could exert their beneficial effect were addressed. We performed for the first time a comprehensive proteomic analysis of exosomes derived from murine ASC. We identified a total of 189 proteins and the shotgun proteomics analysis revealed that the exosomal proteins are mainly involved in cell adhesion and negative regulation of the apoptotic process. We correlated the protein content to the anti-apoptotic effect of exosomes observing a downregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and cleaved caspase-3 and upregulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 α, in an in vitro model of ALS after cell treatment with exosomes. Overall, this study shows the neuroprotective effect of ASC-exosomes after their internalization and their global protein profile, that could be useful to understand how exosomes act, demonstrating that they can be employed as therapy in neurodegenerative diseases.