The current biomarkers available in the clinic are not enough for early diagnosis or for monitoring disease progression of ovarian cancer. Liquid biopsy is a minimally invasive test and has the advantage of early diagnosis and real-time monitoring of treatment response. Although significant progress has been made in the usage of circulating tumor cells and cell-free DNA for ovarian cancer diagnosis, their potential for early detection or monitoring progression remains elusive. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous group of lipid membranous particles released from almost all cell types. EVs contain proteins, mRNA, DNA fragments, non-coding RNAs, and lipids and play a critical role in intercellular communication. Emerging evidence suggests that EVs have crucial roles in cancer development and metastasis, thus holding promise for liquid biopsy-based biomarker discovery for ovarian cancer diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the advantages of EV-based liquid biopsy, summarize the protein biomarkers identified from EVs in ovarian cancer, and highlight the utility of new technologies recently developed for EV detection with an emphasis on their use for diagnosing ovarian cancer, monitoring cancer progression, and developing personalized medicine.
Chang, Lei, Jie Ni, Ying Zhu, Bairen Pang, Peter Graham, Hao Zhang, and Yong Li. "Liquid biopsy in ovarian cancer: recent advances in circulating extracellular vesicle detection for early diagnosis and monitoring progression." practice 37 (2019): 38.