Extracellular vesicles in urologic malignancies— Implementations for future cancer care

Wu, Zhangsong, Zhiqiang Zhang, Wuchao Xia, Jiajia Cai, Yuqing Li, and Song Wu. "Extracellular vesicles in urologic malignancies—Implementations for future cancer care." Cell proliferation (2019): e12659.

Abstract

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), a heterogeneous group of vesicles differing in size and shape, cargo content and function, are membrane‐bound and nano‐sized vesicles that could be released by nearly all variations of cells. EVs have gained considerable attention in the past decades for their functions in modulating intercellular signal‐ ling and roles as potential pools for the novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets in several cancers including urological neoplasms. In general, human and animal cells both can release distinct types of EVs, including ex‐ osomes, microvesicles, oncosomes and large oncosomes, and apoptotic bodies, while the content of EVs can be divided into proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. However, the lack of standard methods for isolation and detection platforms rein the widespread usage in clinical applications warranted furthermore investigations in the develop‐ ment of reliable, specific and sensitive isolation techniques. Whether and how the EVs work has become pertinent issues. With the aid of high‐throughput proteomics or genomics methods, a fully understanding of contents contained in EVs from uro‐genital tumours, beyond all doubt, will improve our ability to identify the complex genomic alterations in the process of cancer and, in turn, contribute to detect poten‐ tial therapeutic target and then provide personalization strategy for patient.”

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