The glioma-astrocyte interaction plays an important role in tumor microenvironment remodeling; however, the underlying mechanism has not been completely clarified. In this study, we show that glioma cells stimulate normal human astrocyte (NHA) into reactive astrocyte (RAS) in a non-contact manner. Additionally, the amount of O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (MGMT) mRNA in exosomes (EXOs) released by RAS was significantly increased compared with that in non-reactive NHA. Importantly, MGMT-negative glioma cells can take up RAS-EXOs and acquire a temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant phenotype via the translation of exogenous exosomal MGMT mRNA both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings illuminate a novel phenomenon that may be a potent mechanism underlying glioma recurrence in which glioma-associated NHAs protect MGMT-negative glioma cells from TMZ-induced apoptosis by the functional intercellular transfer of exosomal MGMT mRNA.