Current progress of extracellular vesicles in prostate cancer early diagnosis (39486g)

Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer death for males in western countries. The current gold
standard for PCa diagnosis – template needle biopsies – often does not convey a true representation of the
molecular profile given sampling error and complex tumour heterogeneity. Presently available biomarker blood
tests have limited accuracy. There is a growing demand for novel diagnostic approaches to reduce both the
number of men with an abnormal PSA/ DRE who undergo invasive biopsy and the number of cores collected
per biopsy. ‘Liquid biopsy’ is a minimally invasive biofluid-based approach that has the potential to provide
information and improve the accuracy of diagnosis for patients’ treatment selection, prognostic counselling and
development of risk-adjusted follow-up protocols. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer-delimited
particles released by tumour cells which may provide a real-time snapshot of the entire tumour in a
non-invasive way. EVs can regulate physiological processes and mediate systemic dissemination of various types
of cancers. Emerging evidence suggests that EVs have crucial roles in PCa development and metastasis. Most
importantly, EVs are directly derived from their parent cells with their information. EVs contain components
including proteins, mRNAs, DNA fragments, non-coding RNAs and lipids, and play a critical role in intercellular
communication. Therefore, EVs hold promise for the discovery of liquid biopsy-based biomarkers for PCa
diagnosis. Here, we review the current approaches for EV isolation and analysis, summarise the recent
advances in EV protein biomarkers in PCa and focus on liquid biopsy-based EV biomarkers in PCa diagnosis for
personalised medicine.

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