Short Summary: Extracellular vesicles (EVs), released during tissue/cell injury, contain a “barcode” indicating specific microRNAs (miRs) that can uncover their origin. We examined whether systemic EVs possessing hepatic miR-signatures would indicate ongoing liver injury and clinical complications in trauma patients (TP). We grouped the patients of alcoholic drinkers into “alcohol-drinkers with liver injury (LI)” (EtOH with LI) or “alcohol-drinkers without LI” (EtOH w/o LI) and we compared these groups to “non-drinkers” (no EtOH). When we examined patient blood from the EtOH with LI group we found the total number of EVs to be increased, along with an increase in miR-122 and let7f—two EV-associated miRNAs—and several inflammation-associating cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-33. In contrast, all of the aforementioned readouts were found to be decreased in the EtOH w/o LI group. These novel data demonstrate that hepatocyte damage in alcohol-intoxicated trauma patients presenting with liver injury can be reflected by an increase in circulating serum EVs, their specific miR-“barcode” and the concomitant increase of systemic inflammatory markers IL-6 and IL-33. Anti-inflammatory effect of alcohol-drinking in EtOH w/o LI can be presented by a reduced number of hepato-derived EVs, no upregulation of IL-6 and IL-33, and a miR “barcode” different from patients presenting with liver injury.