As the use and potential use of nanomaterials (NMs) in food and food-related products increases, the need for well-defined and established methods for characterization of NM properties is essential for product quality control and for regulatory purposes. The potential for NMs to be introduced into food intentionally as an added ingredient, or inadvertently during manufacturing, or through contact with packaging material is a growing concern, as more NMs are being investigated for use in food-related products. Characterization of NMs is a complicated process that involves the initial steps of identification, extraction, separation, and purification prior to employment of techniques to determine physical and chemical properties such as size, shape, chemical composition, and surface coating. Complete characterization of NMs is further complicated when they are incorporated within a complex matrix, such as food. Therefore, identification and characterization of NMs in food matrices is a challenging task and warrants the utilization of state-of-the-art instrumentation. This chapter reviews the application of various characterization techniques for NMs in complex matrices along with challenges and key factors to consider during the characterization process.
Mudalige, Thilak, Haiou Qu, Desiree Van Haute, Siyam M. Ansar, Angel Paredes, and Taylor Ingle. "Characterization of Nanomaterials: Tools and Challenges." In Nanomaterials for Food Applications, pp. 313-353. Elsevier, 2019.