Article | OPEN | Published: 12 February 2019 The Regenerative Potential of Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell Extracellular Vesicles: Lessons Learned by Comparing Different Isolation Techniques

Antounians, Lina, Areti Tzanetakis, Ornella Pellerito, Vincenzo D. Catania, Adrienne Sulistyo, Louise Montalva, Mark J. McVey, and Augusto Zani. "The Regenerative Potential of Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell Extracellular Vesicles: Lessons Learned by Comparing Different Isolation Techniques." Scientific reports 9, no. 1 (2019): 1837.

Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) mediate anti-apoptotic, pro-angiogenic, and immune-modulatory effects in multiple disease models, such as skeletal muscle atrophy and Alport syndrome. A source of potential variability in EV biological functions is how EV are isolated from parent cells. Currently, a comparative study of different EV isolation strategies using conditioned medium from AFSCs is lacking. Herein, we examined different isolation strategies for AFSC-EVs, using common techniques based on differential sedimentation (ultracentrifugation), solubility (ExoQuick, Total Exosome Isolation Reagent, Exo-PREP), or size-exclusion chromatography (qEV). All techniques isolated AFSC-EVs with typical EV morphology and protein markers. In contrast, AFSC-EV size, protein content, and yield varied depending on the method of isolation. When equal volumes of the different AFSC-EV preparations were used as treatment in a model of lung epithelial injury, we observed a significant variation in how AFSC-EVs were able to protect against cell death. AFSC-EV enhancement of cell survival appeared to be dose dependent, and largely uninfluenced by variation in EV-size distributions, relative EV-purity, or their total protein content. The variation in EV-mediated cell survival obtained with different isolation strategies emphasizes the importance of testing alternative isolation techniques in order to maximize EV regenerative capacity.

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