Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are of great interest in biological research, and though they are a relatively recent discovery, they have rapidly shown great potential for use in clinical applications. The various techniques used in EV isolation along with their respective strengths, weaknesses, and potential for downstream applications are outlined here. A brief description of the different approaches in exosome characterisation are subsequently described. It has been highlighted that despite the recent developments in these processes, there is still a great deal of refinement to be made. EVs are produced by almost all cell types, found in many biological samples, and are implicated in multiple biological processes including cargo trafficking, cell-cell communication, and signal transduction. The presence of these EVs and their varied cargo in a biological sample can be indicative in disease diagnosis, and guide precision medicine- based approaches to disease management. EVs have been reported to act in the benefit of the cell through moderating repair and regeneration, but they can also act to the detriment of the cell through increased tumorigenesis and metastasis. This duality is intriguing as it can allow for the use of EVs in distinct therapeutic approaches and displays their versatility in potential downstream applications. In this review,
examples of the cellular roles of EVs and their applications in pathological and regenerative contexts are explored. In reviewing some of the developments made in recent times, EVs are shown to be very promising both in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
Extracellular vesicles, regenerative medicine, biomarkers, EV isolation, EV characterisation, cancer