A system to discriminate human or avian influenza A remains a highly sought-after tool for prevention of influenza pandemics in humans. Selective binding of the influenza A viral hemagglutinin (HA) to specific sialic acid (SA) receptors (Neu5Acα(2-6)Gal in humans, Neu5Acα(2-3)Gal in birds) is determined by the genotype of the HA and neuraminidase (NA) segments, making it one of the key characteristics that distinguishes human or avian influenza A virus. Here we demonstrate the direct detection of whole H1N1 influenza A virus using 6′-sialyllactose (Neu5Acα(2-6)Galβ(1-4)Glc, 6SL)-immobilized gold electrodes as biosensing surfaces. The sensitivity was higher than that of conventional immunochromatographic technique (ICT) for influenza virus and not restricted by genetic drift. The label-free detection technology via direct attachment of a whole virus using a chemically modified electrode is a promising means to provide a simple and rapid diagnostic system for viral infections.